Concrete Pictorial Abstract Approach

At S.A.M, we follow the Concrete, Pictorial, Abstract (CPA) approach that develops a solid understanding of mathematical concepts. Developed by American psychologist, Jerome Bruner, this methodology is the foundation of teaching the Singapore way. The process starts with physically illustrating mathematical concepts using objects, manipulatives and games, before moving to pictorial explanation and finally to the abstract (i.e. symbols and numbers) representation of mathematics.

Concrete: Concepts are introduced using physical objects to model problems (lays foundation for conceptual understanding)

Pictorial: Concepts are further explained using diagrams or pictures representing the problem (further strengthens conceptual understanding)

Abstract: Eventually problems are represented by mathematical numbers and symbols (which are now conceptually understood)